How Long Do Pine Trees Live?

Have you ever wondered about the life expectancy of a pine tree? Many trees live for a surprising number of years, but are pines among them?

A pine tree’s life expectancy is heavily dependent on its species, but some pines live for upward of 700 years. The Bristlecone Pine can reach around 5000 years old and is thought to be one of the longest living organisms on the planet.

In this article, we’re going to explore more about how long pines live, what can affect their longevity, and what signs of age they show.

How Long Do Pine Trees Live?

Pine trees can live for an extraordinarily long time. They are generally slow growing, so they need to have a long lifespan in order to reach their great heights. Some pines are quite short lived, and may only survive for around 50 years, while others can live for thousands. The factors that determine the lifespan include:

  • The species of the tree
  • The conditions the tree grows in
  • Factors such as diseases and pests

The most important of these is usually the species of the tree. A long lived pine should survive for years even in fairly poor conditions, while a short lived pine will not live for very long even if the conditions are perfect for it.

It’s a good idea to find out how long a pine tree is likely to live before you plant one. If you want a pine that’s going to last for many years, choose one of the long lived varieties from the information below.

Which Pine Trees Live The Longest?

Bristlecone Pine

Some of the pine trees that have particularly long lives include:

  • The Scots pine can live for around 300 years
  • The Bristlecone pine can live for up to 5000 years in the right conditions
  • The Lodgepole pine can live for around 200 years, or even up to around 400 years
  • The Austrian pine can live for 120 years
  • The White pine can live for 450 years
  • The Red pine can live for 700 years
  • The Longleaf pine can live for 500 years
  • The Loblolly pine can live for 275 years
  • The Ponderosa pine can live for 500 years, or possibly longer in the right conditions

As you can see, some pines have extraordinarily long lives, but even among the longest living pines, most can only survive for a few hundred years. The Bristlecone pine is the exception, and it is thought to be the longest living tree on the planet.

Even most Bristlecone pines will not live to see 5000; this is very dependent on being grown in the right conditions and having the right resources to grow strong and healthy. All pines need a suitable environment if they are going to thrive, so if you want to grow a pine tree, you’ll need to do some research on what the tree needs first.

Which Are The Shortest Lived Pines?

Mugo Pine

There are a few pines that do not live for a very long time – at least relative to other pine trees. If you are thinking of planting any of these, be aware that they will die more quickly than others in their species. The short lived pines include:

  • The Mugo pine and the Dwarf Mugo pine can live for around 50 years
  • The Golden Stone pine will usually survive for up to 90 years
  • The Coulter pine can live for about 100 years
  • The Italian Stone pine often only lives for about 50 years in urban environments, although it can live to be 150 if it is grown in the wild, away from pollution, and without restrictions on its roots

Do Pine Trees Live A Long Time Compared With Other Trees?

Some other trees, such as fruit trees, have surprisingly short lives. For example, the Gray Birch will only manage around 50 years, and the Black Locust will do around 60. Persimmons live for around 60 years, and the Black Willow will live for around 70.

Even many oaks will only survive for around 100 or 200 years, which makes the several hundred years that many pines can last seem pretty impressive. The White Oak has a life expectancy of up to 600 years, which puts it ahead of many pines, but certainly not close to the Bristlecone pine.

Pine trees, therefore, do live a long time compared to many other trees, although not all. The Mugo pine is notable for its short life, which would be considered brief even for a broad-leaf tree.

What Else Affects A Pine Tree’s Lifespan?

Many other things have an impact on how long this tree can live, and if you provide your pine tree with everything it needs, it’s far more likely to live for a long time. Some factors, such as air pollution and space constriction, may be beyond your control, but others will be things that you can alter.

Like all plants, your pine tree needs the right amount of light, water, carbon dioxide, and nutrients to grow well. Young pines in particular can be shaded out by other plants, and since they need sunlight to grow well, they will struggle if you don’t clear a space around them. This could cause long-term problems and shorten the tree’s lifespan.

Similarly, if the tree gets too much or too little water, it will struggle to survive, and this could prevent it from living as long as it otherwise would. Pine trees survive well with limited amounts of water because their needles help to preserve water, but if you live in a dry part of the country, your tree may die if you don’t give it extra water.

Pine Tree Care

Other aspects, such as nutrient quantity and soil quality will also affect the pine tree’s lifespan. Very poor soil or heavy soil that doesn’t drain properly will put additional stress on the tree, preventing it from doing well, and possibly shortening its life.

Do Pine Trees Die From Pests And Diseases?

Pine trees are generally resilient, but you should be constantly vigilant when it comes to diseases, fungal infections, and pest species that might attack the tree and cause stress. If you notice any signs that your tree is sick, such as yellowing or dropping needles, browning, wilting, or death in certain parts of the tree, you will need to identify the cause and treat it as soon as possible.

Pine tree diseases can take various forms, depending on the type of tree and the area that you live in, but needle discoloration and dropping are particularly common signs. You might also see fungal infections taking over and decomposing the wood, although this usually only happens once the tree is already sick.

Pines can get rust on their stems, have their foliage attacked by moths, and end up with cankers on their branches. If left untreated, many diseases can be life threatening and will result in the death of the tree, no matter how old it is. These problems may also make the tree more vulnerable to insect predators, which could attack the needles and further weaken the tree.

Some pine species, such as the Austrian pine, are more susceptible to pests and diseases than others. This fares reasonably well in its native climate, but if you grow it in the Midwest, it’s likely to suffer from a variety of issues.

Can You Tell How Old A Pine Tree Is?

It’s hard to tell how old a mature pine tree is, but the thickness of the trunk will give you some indication. Finding the diameter of the tree and then multiplying this by the tree’s growth factor will help you to estimate how old the tree is.

You can find the growth factor for each different kind of tree from the International Society of Arboriculture, and this will help you to calculate the tree’s age. It isn’t an exact science, however.

Counting the rings in the tree’s trunk is the commonest and most accurate option, but obviously, this is only practical once the tree has been cut down.

The growth factor of pines can vary enormously, so make sure you are using the correct one for the tree that you are attempting to estimate the age of. Slow-growing pines will gain girth much more gradually. Think about the conditions the tree is growing in as well; if these are poor, the tree will grow more slowly.


Pine trees have varied lifespans, but most are reasonably long lived and will outstrip many of the broad-leaf trees. The shortest lived pine tends to be the Mugo pine, which will usually only live for about 50 years, but the Bristlecone pine is thought to be able to survive for thousands of years in the right conditions.